Whether youve loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Thoughts on grammaticalization christian lehmann download. In the terminology of hopper 1991 it is called layering. The present edition contains a number of corrections of the 1995 edition. The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics.
Introduction in its broadest sense, grammaticalization, also known as grammaticization, is the process by which grammar is created cro 2006. Grammaticalization of indefinite pronouns oxford scholarship. Elimination described in 4 should be a diachronic process. Unlike most other grammatical domains, that of personal pronouns is clearly underresearched in works on grammaticalization. This is a general introduction to grammaticalization, the change whereby lexical terms and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions, and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions. A number of semantic, syntactic and phonological processes interact in the grammaticalization of morphemes and of whole constructions. Such was the importance of his ideas that these speculations about the genesis of grammar were regarded as the most sophisticated thoughts on this field. Erosion is the last parameter to come in when grammaticalization takes place, and in many of the examples to be presented below it is not or not yet involved. Diachronic patterns of usage of no doubt in the english. It explains that japanese has been a strictly headfinal subjectobjectverb order sov language with nominativeaccusative alignment, and with frequent omission of argument noun phrases, throughout its documented history. Nevertheless,itsufficestoillustrate,forpresentpurposes,the range of the grammaticalization process and the phases conventionally recog nizedinit. In other words, research on grammaticalization more than anyother phenomenon hasled researchers to a. Grammaticalization from a typological perspective ebook. Grammaticalization, constructions and the incremental.
This is the basis of the essential structural parameters which constitute grammaticalization. Expanding the definiton of grammaticalization publish. As a consequence, sociolinguistically highresolution studies of historical change. Introduction the phenomenon of grammaticalization in chinese has reportedly been observed as early as the late th to early 14 th centuries by yuan dynasty scholar zhou boqi, who noted that xuzi. Unity and diversity in grammaticalization scenarios pdf. A greatly influential work in the domain was christian lehmanns thoughts on grammaticalization 1982.
Grammaticalization as optimization stanford university. The secret history of grammaticalization history and. The purpose is to determine the diachronic patterns of usage of nd, and secondly to compare results with the conclusions of existing diachronic pragmatic studies of modal markers. A minimalist study of lexicalization and grammaticalization by james andrew berry a dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of philosophy. One major characteristic of grammaticalized forms is a class shift. Itisessentiallythetheoryofwilhelmvon humboldt 1836, which has been elaborated in more recent. From the point of view of change, forms do not shift abruptly from one category to another, but go through a series of small transitions, transitions that tend to be similar in type across languages. Thoughts on grammaticalization by christian lehmann. In historical linguistics and discourse analysis, grammaticalization is a type of semantic change by which a a lexical item or construction changes into one that serves a grammatical function, or b a grammatical item develops a new grammatical function. This study offers a collocate analysis of the modal marker no doubt nd in the eebo, ecco and evans combined corpora using sketch engine.
Syntactic reanalysis and the grammaticalization of cantonese coverbs 1. In other words, research on grammaticalization more than any other phenomenon has led researchers to a usagebased approach to grammar. Despite its modest title, the book can be read as an advanced introduction to grammaticalization, though its conception is very original. This chapter discusses the grammaticalization of indefinite pronouns, focusing on the ways in which such pronouns arise and change over time in different languages and the regularities in these changes.
Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional. Grammaticalization wikimili, the best wikipedia reader. A sign is grammaticalized to the extent that it is devoid of concrete lexical meaning and takes part in obligatory grammatical rules. Grammaticalization as structure elimination 6 given in 2, i propose a theory of grammaticalization, as stated in 4. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books youve read. A sign is grammaticalized to the extent that it is devoid of concrete lexical meaning and takes part in obligatory. In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization also known as grammatization or grammaticization is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions i.
The term is thought to have originated with meillet w958, but rst. In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization is a process of language. Bernd heine in this new work, bernd heine claims that the structure of grammatical categories is predictable to a large extent once we know the range of possible cognitive structures from which they are derived. Chapter four presents a theory of grammaticalization which is based on the notion of the autonomy of the linguistic sign with respect to the paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. The grammaticalization of tense markers semantics archive.
Prefacetothe1982workingpaperversion functionalandoperationalinnature. A first strand of grammaticalization studies, largely inspired by lehmanns 2015 1995 thoughts on grammaticalization, views grammaticalization as. This article considers the history of grammaticalisation in the japanese language. The second edition has been thoroughly revised with substantial updates on theoretical. Grammaticalization, the change by which lexical categories become func tional categories, is overwhelmingly irreversible. Grammaticalization is a process leading from lexemes to grammatical formatives.
Syntactic reanalysis and the grammaticalization of. The torrent of new comitatives in baltofinnicsaami was caused by. Basic to work on grammaticalization is the concept of a cline see halliday 1961 for an early use of this term. Paradigm instances of grammaticalization involve all four parameters but, as we will see below, there are also cases where not all of the parameters play a role. Grammar is constantly emergent as an aggregate whole of discourse tendencies that are present in language use between interlocutors, hence the notion emergent grammar hopper 1987. By the end of the nineteenth century a clear tradition in the study of grammaticalization had been established, lacking only the name itself. Claims about constructions and grammaticalization in earlier work although many concepts germane to grammaticalization were articulated before meillet,3 he is thought to be the first to have used the term. To account for the fact that it is not always the oldest manifestation of a grammaticalised item that is leaving the language system, haspelmath 2004.
The final chapter presents a theory of grammaticalization which is based on the autonomy of the linguistic sign with respect to the paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. The gradual coalescence into words in grammaticalization. Thoughts on grammaticalization was first published in a workingpaper version in 1982 and became very influential immediately, even though it was properly published only in 1995. When surveying this wealth of grammaticalization studies, it becomes readily apparent that different domains of inquiry have come into focus over the years. Grammaticalization is a theoretical process whereby openclass lexical words such as nouns and verbs transform, or grammaticalize, into closedclass more grammatical parts of speech such as adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, demonstratives. Here you can find all of our electronic books and journals, for purchase and download or subscriber access. The study of grammaticalization raises a number of fundamental theoretical issues pertaining to the relation of langue and parole, creativity and automatic coding, synchrony and diachrony, categoriality and continua, typological characteristics and languagespecific forms, etc. Using verbtotense aspect grammaticalization chains as a norm, i will evaluate other instances of linguistic change from english and digo a bantu language. The answer to that question can be expressed in three words. Most grammaticalization scholars would agree with labovs 1994. For meillet, analogy and grammaticalization are categorically distinct processes, because.
Thoughts on degrammaticalization thoughts on degrammaticalization ramat, paolo 19920101 00. One reason can be seen in the fact that personal pronouns differ in their diachronic behavior from most other grammatical categories to the extent that they present a challenge to grammaticalization theory. On the grammaticalization of some processes of word. They are operationalized to the point of rendering degrees of grammaticalization measurable. Hubert cuyckens reconciling older and newer approaches to. Welcome to econtent platform of john benjamins publishing company. The only phenomenon that i am attempting to explain is the crosslinguistic rarity of fully obligatory object indexing traditional agreement in the category of person. The first type of contactinduced grammaticalisation includes the rise of complex. This is the basis of the structural parameters that constitute grammaticalization. They apparently treat the two terms as having slight differences i had always thought they meant the same. The grammaticalization of only and just by a thesis. One of the poster child examples is the development from demonstrative determiner to definite article, e.
This volume explores the way in which grammaticalization processes whereby lexical words eventually become markers of grammatical categories converge and differ across various types of language. Secondary grammaticalization refers to cases of grammaticalization affecting elements that already have a grammatical function and proceed to develop a new grammatical function. It first considers diachronic typology before describing four main source constructions for indefiniteness markers. When we talk about linguistic categories and whether or not a given language has a particular category, we are not so much interested in what meanings can be conveyed, but how they are conveyed.88 312 765 765 1519 1396 287 419 1466 1506 409 44 857 711 687 1493 232 491 925 58 1550 1543 1060 1142 17 585 196 470 598 1215 528 1395 557 138 1199 471 35 973 34 32 1126 448